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Storage Solutions (4 Questions)

Partitioning is useful for organizing your files in different drives within a single storage device. By default there is only one unallocated drive, but to make several partitions follow these steps:

  1. From your desktop or from the start button, right click on “My Computer” > “Manage” > “Disk Management”
  2. Your HDD/SSD should appear as “Unallocated Disk”. Right click on its icon, and select “New Simple Volume” & follow the corresponding instructions
  3. Select the desired capacity for each partition, and proceed to format each drive. To make more partitions, redo this step
  4. Now, under “My Computer”, “New Volume” or “Local Disk” should appear as the new partitions.

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Yes. The Portable HDD’s main function is to be used as a removable storage device via USB interface. To use for booting, please note the following:

  1. Please check if your computer supports bootable USB functions, and that the portable HDD can be detected upon booting.
  2. Additionally, check that the software installed can support booting from USB devices. If the Portable HDD cannot be detected upon booting, then your computer does not support booting from Portable HDD.

Defragmentation describes the process of physically organizing or partitioning the contents of an HDD with the intent to reduce load and seek times. SSDs are designed to randomly access any location on the drive and to write data evenly across all sectors. Each sector of an SSD has a limited number of writes before it can no longer be overwritten, however this theoretical limit cannot be reached in today’s work environment. In essence, defragmentation causes unnecessary write processes and/or wear to the SSD, directly affecting SSDs write limits – and performance. 

TwinMOS SSD models come at a variety of industry level specs to cater to the needs of our diverse users. All of our models contain industry standard features: NAND, a Mean Time Before Failure of 1,500,000 hours, Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS) compliancy, and tested read/write times.

Our lightning fast users benefit from the features within AlphaPro and Xtreme models:

  • PCI express, providing read/write speeds up to 600% higher
  • NVM express, boosting interoperability and performance across systems

SSDs in general operate with no moving parts, which is what makes it much faster than any traditional HDD. Solid State Disks have lower access time and latency; in fact seek latency in an SSD is close to zero!

DRAM Module (9 Questions)

There are four main types of RAM (in order from oldest to newest technologically); SD, DDR, DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4. They differ in the way they operate, and mainly in their operation speeds. All RAMs used in computers today have a synchronous interface meaning they wait for a clock signal before responding to clock signals.

From a more technical standpoint, RAM is a kind of computer memory that temporarily stores information, improving your system’s performance. Or in other words, RAM simply holds data for the processor. The processor also has its own memory known as the L2 cache, the cache lies between the processor and the RAM. The processor sends and retrieves data from this cache, but when this cache overflows data is sent to the RAM.

DDR2 SDRAM stands for double data rate 2 synchronous dynamic random access memories. DDR2 is twice as fast as DDR which means twice as much data is carried to the module for each clock cycle. Also due to the design improvements DDR2 consumes less power as compared to the DDR memory. DDR2 speeds range between 400 MHz (DDR2-400) and 800 MHz (DDR2-800). DDR2-400 transfers 3200 MB/s. DDR2-800 transfers 6400 MB/s.

DDR2 SDRAM stands for double data rate 2 synchronous dynamic random access memories. DDR2 is twice as fast as DDR which means twice as much data is carried to the module for each clock cycle. Also due to the design improvements DDR2 consumes less power as compared to the DDR memory. DDR2 speeds range between 400 MHz (DDR2-400) and 800 MHz (DDR2-800). DDR2-400 transfers 3200 MB/s. DDR2-800 transfers 6400 MB/s.

DDR3 SDRAM Stands for double data rate 3 synchronous dynamic random access memories. In theory DDR3 is supposed to act twice as fast as DDR2 memories. Thus DDR3 speeds range between 800 MHz (DDR3-800) and 1600 MHz (DDR3-1600). DDR3-800 transfers 6400 MB/s; DDR3-1600 transfers 12800 MB/s.

It depends on two factors-
a.    The amount of memory your computer hardware [Main board] can handle.
b.    The amount of memory your Microsoft® Windows® operating system (OS) can handle.
You can check your main board maximum capacity by using our “Product Compatibility Search” and for your operating system here is the list of the supported memory-

Windows 7 (32 Bit) Windows 7 (64 Bit) Windows Vista (32 bit)
Starter: 2GB Home Basic: 8GB Ultimate: 4 GB
All other Versions: 4GB Home Premium: 16GB Enterprise: 4 GB
Professional: 192GB Business: 4 GB
Enterprise: 192GB Home Premium: 4 GB
Ultimate: 192GB Home Basic: 4 GB
Starter: 1 GB
For more, please visit http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/platform/server/pae/paemem.mspx

No. DDR3 is not backward compatible with DDR2 and DDR. e.g. DDR3 has 1.5V power, DDR2 needs 1.8V and DDR needs 2.5V power and DDR3, DDR2 DIMMs come in a new 240-pin module. In terms of standard motherboard slots also the notch or the key for different memory modules is at different place for the three type of memory thus preventing any accidental insertion in memory slots which can damage the memory and or the motherboard.

Yes, it’s normal because when you install more than 4GB capacity, system resources (including ICH,AGP/PCI etc) will re-map memory address from upper memory area to lower area, that’s why BIOS always shows less than 4GB capacity.

Please follow the below steps-
1.    Please confirm the module is suitable for your computer. Cheek “Product Compatibility” section.
2.    Power off the computer and re-install the module again.
3.    Please try to change the order if more than one module is installed.
4.    Please try to install the TwinMOS module only/alone.

The Windows 32-bit protected-mode cache driver (Vcache) determines the maximum cache size based on the amount of RAM that is present when Windows starts. Vcache then reserves enough memory addresses to permit it to access a cache of the maximum size so that it can increase the cache to that size if needed. These addresses are allocated in a range of virtual addresses (3 to 4 gigabytes) known as the system arena.
On computers with large amounts of RAM, the maximum cache size can be large enough that Vcache consumes all of the addresses in the system arena, leaving no virtual memory addresses available for other functions, such as opening an MS-DOS prompt (creating a new virtual machine). To work around this problem, use the MaxFileCache setting in the System.ini file to reduce the maximum amount of memory that Vcache uses to 512 megabytes (524,288 KB) or less.
This issue would occur under Microsoft Windows 95/98/98SE/Me.
You may refer to the below URL for a solution.

http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;253912&Product=w98.

Flash Drives (9 Questions)

CPRM stands for Content Protection for Recordable Media. It is a method of copyright protection for content stored on authorized SD cards. From a technical standpoint, it uses SD-Audio and SD Binding technology to ensure duplication and/or distribution is prohibited.

Copy-protection is certainly not mandatory for all data types and can be utilized selectively at the discretion of the content owner. To use CPRM with SD cards, CPRM compliant products such as SD-Audio players, SD-Video mobile phones, or other enabled devices such as PCs with CPRM enabled SD slot or CPRM enabled USB read/write are also required.

The X speed rating gives memory device users a performance indicator on how fast the card can transfer images. Flash cards with higher X speed ratings are designed to perform faster. From a more technical standpoint, the X-speed rating indicates a megabytes (mb) per second reading speed, and represents a multiplier. A practical examples of X speed:

  • If X is given as 150 kilobytes per second, then 133X = 133 times 150KB/sec = 1,000 Bytes; 1 MB = 1 million Bytes (1 kb = 1,000 mb)

Please note that speeds may vary due to host and device configuration.

Speed class is the minimum recorded speed during worst case scenario testing.

The applications standards used for speed classing are as follows:
Class 2: H.264 video recording, MPEG-4, MPEG-2 video recording
Class 4: MEPG-2 (HDTV) video recording, DSC consecutive shooting
Class 6: Mega-pixel DSC consecutive shooting, professional video camera
Class 10: Full HD video recording, HD consecutive still shooting.

The SD Association has established specifications that rate the minimum data transfer in SD, SDHC, SDXC, SDHC UHS-I and SDXC UHS-I memory cards and host products. The speed rate specifications were established based on the needs of movie and video companies. Video recording requires certain writing speeds when recording the data onto an SD card. The SD Speed Class and UHS Speed Class standardized the specification for both card and host devices in order to guarantee minimum writing speeds.

ReadyBoost is a component built into Microsoft Windows, available in versions Windows Vista and up. It uses any type of portable mass storage system (think flash memory, USB flash drive, SD card, CompactFlash, external hard drive, etc.) as a drive for disk cache in order to accelerate the system. Yes, every TwinMOS USB Flash Drive model supports ReadyBoost and is entirely compatible.

Compared to USB 3.0 with USB 2.0, USB 3.0 has a high transfer rate and stronger power supply. The highest transfer rate of USB 3.0 is 4.8 Gbps and the power supply is 900mA whereas the transfer rate of USB 2.0 is 480 Mbps and the power supply is 500mA. So, USB 3.0 transfer rate is ten times the USB 2.0 and supply stronger power. USB3.0 is backward compatible with USB 2.0. But if a USB 2.0 device is connected to a USB 3.0 port, it will only operate at USB 2.0 transfer rate.

Please follow the below steps-
1.    Please confirm the module is suitable for your computer. Cheek “Product Compatibility” section.
2.    Power off the computer and re-install the module again.
3.    Please try to change the order if more than one module is installed.
4.    Please try to install the TwinMOS module only/alone.

for your TwinMOS USB Flash Drives, we have all kinds of Application software in our web site’s Download section. Please visit for you appropriate Application software.

for your TwinMOS USB Flash Drives, we have all kinds of Application software in our web site’s Download section. Please visit for you appropriate Application software.

Accessories (5 Questions)

Generally, your digital camera connects to your computer through a USB or serial port, but this can be inconvenient. A flash card reader instead attaches directly to your PC’s USB port and transfers data at a high speed without the need to connect the camera itself to the computer. This gives you the ability to transfer data even when the camera isn’t on hand, and save ample battery life on your camera by avoiding downloading the data. For overall better device performance and durability, it’s better to use one card reader for your flash card.

The EzeeHUB serves as a convenient, organized solution to connecting multiple USB devices to modern-day PCs.

There are three different USB HUB models within the EzeeHUB series: 4 port, 7 port, and 10 port options for high-speed USB 2.0 interface. With a compact, colorful design, the hub can be used with or without a power adapter (it is usually recommended to use with the adapter – to charge those hungry devices). 

This is a one-of-a-kind HDD accessing device, which makes copying data easier than ever. This is useful when trying to quickly share large volumes of data: high definition files, multimedia files, movies, music, data backup, HDD cloning, and so forth. The SuperSpeed USB 3.0 interface supports data transfer speeds up to 5Gbps. Just plug in your 2.5” or 3.5” HDD and share via the SuperSpeed interface.

The All in 1 Card Reader has the capability to read and write all kinds of flashcards/memory cards. The Combo Gadget supplements the All in 1 Card Reader capabilities with three additional USB 2.0 hubs on a single device.

The USB 3.0 PCI-e/Express Card can support a tested maximum speed of 5 gbps, but can vary based on your hardware and/or operating system setup. To achieve higher performance rates, the device should be used with authentic, shorter length USB 3.0 cables, and whilst connected to a power source. To get optimal performance please read the PCI-e installation guide.

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